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Before this study came out in 2005 we knew that grade 2 and 3 sprains were permanent.  A sprain is overstretching and tearing of ligaments.  This study showed that all 3 grades of ligament sprains will undergo a healing process that will leave the ligaments weaker than they were before the injury.  All damaged ligaments (sprains) will fail to recover to pre-injury condition leaving the joints they surround unstable for life.  The study concluded the following: “that no treatment currently exists to restore an injured tendon or ligament to its normal condition”.    




Tozer, S., & Duprez, D. (2005). Tendon and ligament: Development, repair and disease. Birth Defects Research Part C: Embryo Today: Reviews,75(3), 226-236.

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